California

How I Made "Ansel Adams in Los Angeles"

By Marcus Wohlsen | April 27, 2012, 8:10 a.m.

One thing I'm learning as an aspiring web developer: It's probably a good idea to take notes as you puzzle through a project. Otherwise you risk re-solving the same problems the next time around. I naturally didn't do that as I put together my first interactive map. This post I hope works as the next-best thing: an attempt to reconstruct the process that I hope will help others facing the same questions I did.

Disclaimer: This post is going to get technical and stay technical. If that understandably doesn't interest you, by all means go and look at the pretty map. Also, the final takeaway, if you don't want to read to the end: As with any storytelling medium, story conception is the hardest and most important part.

For those of you still with me: I got my first look at the rich assortment of free and open-source tools for making custom map visualizations in a class I took in February through the Gray Area Foundation for the Arts. I didn't notice when I signed up that the class was being taught by Mike Migurski of Stamen Desgin, a small San Francisco shop that's among the world's leading innovators in interactive maps. I describe the class in detail in several earlier posts.

The class became a crash course in Javascript, and I knew I'd quickly lose what I learned if I didn't try to use these tools myself.

My first decision was to work with Polymaps, an extremely flexible Javascript library that provides a basic interactivity engine for map-building, freeing you up to focus on your specific data and how you want to present it. I probably could have had a finished project sooner if I'd worked with a software tool like TileMill, or something less technical like Google Fusion Tables. But I figured if I could make sense of Polymaps, I'd have a free, deeply customizable tool in my kit and could always move onto the easier stuff later.

Eventually, some sense was made, but not always quickly, and not always neatly. If you choose to work with Polymaps, master the first page of the documentation. Polymaps creator Mike Bostock assumes a high level of sophistication, and the in-depth methods can get confusing. Still, to get a map online that does something, the first page of the docs is most of what you need (the examples help a great deal, too).

The first exercise I set myself was to draw San Francisco's zip codes on a zoomable, pannable map. The City of San Francisco's open data site has a shapefile of Bay Area zips. To work with Polymaps, you need to convert shapefiles to GeoJSON, a data format native to Javascript. This useful tutorial showed me how. One tidbit: I learned that a shapefile by definition needs these three component files: .shp, .shx, and .dbf. Without all three, you might have problems.

Once I had the GeoJSON, using Polymaps to draw the different zip codes became fairly straightforward. One "duh" moment came when I realized that you don't need to use any underlying map tiles to make a map that looks like a map, at least aif you're working with data like zip codes that matches the geographical contours of the place you're displaying. You can see how that looks on the zip code map I made. You'll also see that I took some simple parks data also available on the city's site and mashed it up to show the number of city-run parks per zip code. Not incredibly informative, since much of San Francisco's green space is federally managed. Still: I'd made a map that did something.

My next experiment traced the official borders of the city's neighborhoods, again using data supplied from the city's website. In this case, I used a tile set, Cloudmade's Pale Dawn, which allows you to see the streets and landmarks associated with each neighborhood. Again, elementary in concept but a simple interactive created with a high degree of customization.

Which is all wonderful, but also doesn't mean very much if you don't have a good story to tell. I learned firsthand the lesson that storytelling through data visualization is at its core an exercise in data curation. You can make the world's most beautiful map, but the story it tells is only as compelling as the data underlying it.

At this point, I became fixated on building a map that displayed tweets based on various search terms, convinced that something inherently meaningful would emerge. I spent a long time wrangling Twitter's Streaming API, which allows you to access tweets as they're posted versus a static search that needs to be refreshed everytime you want new tweets. To get a bucketful of tweets to work with and write them to a file, open your preferred command-line tool and use this:

curl -d "track=your,comma,separated,search,terms" https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json -uYourTwitterUserName:YourPassword -o YourFilename.json

The command will funnel any new tweets containing your search terms into the file you specify after the "-o" as long as you supply valid Twitter login credentials after the "-u" (no space after the "u"). Be warned: The tweets can pile up fast.

The next aggravation came in realizing that you must still wrap the raw Twitter into a Javascript array variable before you can do anything useful with it. The hours spent slogging through this seemingly simple exercise in find-and-replace fall into the category of future deathbed regrets. Skip the agony and learn about jQuery's .getJSON(), which even then still has some funky browser issues when trying to develop locally. If I ever wanted to do something large-scale with the Streaming API, I realized I'd need to dump everything into something like MongoDB, which now goes on the list of must-learn tools.

Anyway, after all that delightfulness, I made another painful discovery: Hardly anyone geocodes their tweets. I downloaded about 7,200 tweets containing the name "Trayvon Martin" thinking I'd learn something pithy. Instead I found that just 27 of those contained the latitude and longitude coordinates from which the tweet originated. This rate holds steady over various tweet searches: somewhere around one percent or less of tweets seem to include geodata that allows you to plot them usefully on a map. There was no story, reminding me again: Story conception is tougher than execution.

At this point, I didn't have a story but knew that I wanted to use Stamen's newly released watercolor map tiles, an amazing project in which the entire interactive map of the world appears to have been painted in watercolor. On their own, the watercolor tiles have no labels, which sets an impressionistic tone. The story would require a similar feel.

Trolling back through my GAFFTA class notes for more ideas, I came across one of the first lessons, which dropped some photos from the 1906 earthquake onto a map of San Francisco. The earthquake photos had come from a site called Historypin, where anyone can post historic photos and pin them to standard Google-style maps. Here I came across part of the Ansel Adams collection posted by the Los Angeles Public Library, where the full collection resides.

The Historypin site is great, but I wanted to make something that really showcased this little-known collection with an engaging, standalone interactive that thanks to the watercolor tiles would have a vintage feel appropriate to Adams' pictures. To get there, I had to hand-cull the collection of 217 photos to eliminate duplicates and find those with specific location information. Most of the photos are Adams' contact prints and negatives from a 1939 magazine assignment. According to the library, he placed little value on them, which I expect is why the caption information is spotty, including on location specifics. Still, I ended up with more than 40 pictures I could plot on a watercolor map of L.A. Though labor-intensive, the research was enjoyable: I learned a lot about the history and geography of city. I hope the final result offers others that same interesting window.

A final technical note: All that work I'd done with the tweets wasn't wasted. Creating the box to display the photos on the map dots was more complicated than I'd expected. I'd followed the Polymaps example of using the jQuery Tipsy plugin, which essentially creates a separate layer of CSS-rendered tooltip boxes on top of map. I had trouble following some of the logic of the Polymaps example, which seemed to create a blank line at the bottom of the screen I couldn't eliminate. Happily, I wasn't the only one trying to work with Tipsy and SVG (the graphics format used to render the various map elements). This SVG-friendly fork made working with Tipsy on the map as easy as working with any other HTML element.

Ultimately the real value for me in this project is not the end product, but the template I patched together (which I'm happy to share), a template that's easily tweaked for use with all kinds of data. It's simple but seems powerful as an easily adaptable tool for telling a wide range of stories.

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